Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa Essay -- Essays on Eating Disorde

  Ã‚   Imagine starving yourself to the point of death. Imagine throwing up repeatedly after every meal. This may seem too harsh of a reality to comprehend, but between 30-60% of all United States females are on calorie restrictive diets. (Reel, 3) These diets eventually lead to obsessions about their desired weight and often result in an eating disorder. The two most prevalent disorders today are; Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. Bulimia Nervosa affects 2 to 3 % of all women 15 to 40. Many young women between middle and high school develop often these bad habits to cope with the insecurities developing around them. These two disorders are affecting individuals younger and younger each year. Anorexia generally begins between 12 and 20 and coincides with the beginning and ending of high school. Recent studies have shown that Bulimia tends to affect 5% of all high school girls. (Levine, 132-4) These girls either have a serious Bulimic disorder or have routine weekly binges. Why are eating disorders so prevalent among young women? This question plagues many teachers, parents, and even friends of victims. There are many controversial causes surrounding this very question. Three major causes seem to dominate the minds of researchers worldwide. One's family factors and social scene ultimately effect one's psychological factors, which could eventually lead into the development of a serious eating disease. Each of these factors tend to effect everyone differently, but from various research they all have the same outcome; an eating disorder.    Bulimia, or "ox hunger", is a disease characterized by abnormal increases in hunger whereby an individual binges rapidly, then attempts to undo the effects by vomiting, taking laxatives,... ... Every disease can be cured with love and patience. With these eating disorder patients life has seemed to treat them wrong, all they need is some reassurance that everything will turn out fine.    Works Cited Ask NOAH about Mental Health. "Eating Disorders: Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa." http://noah.cuny.edu/wellconn/eatdisorders.html How Serious Are Eating Disorders (16 March 1999) Berg, Frances M. Afraid to Eat. Hettinger: Healthy Weight Journal, 1997. Costin, Carolyn. Your Dieting Daughter, Is She Dying for Attention? New York: Brunner/Mazel Publishers, 1997. Eating Disorders Recovery Group. "Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, Who's the Fattest of Them All?" http://www.mirror-mirror.org/eatdis.html (17 March 1999) Levine, Michael P. Student Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia. Washington: National Education Association, 1987

Monday, January 13, 2020

Part Four Chapter III

III Andrew had spent hours deciding which clothes he ought to wear for his first day's work at the Copper Kettle. His final choice was draped over the back of the chair in his bedroom. A particularly angry acne pustule had chosen to bring itself to a shiny tight peak on his left cheek, and Andrew had gone so far as to experiment with Ruth's foundation, which he had sneaked out of her dressing-table drawer. He was laying the kitchen table on Friday evening, his mind full of Gaia and the seven solid hours of close proximity to her that were within touching distance, when his father returned from work in a state that Andrew had never seen before. Simon seemed subdued, almost disorientated. ‘Where's your mother?' Ruth came bustling out of the walk-in pantry. ‘Hello Si-Pie! How – what's wrong?' ‘They've made me redundant.' Ruth clapped her hands to her face in horror, then dashed to her husband, threw her arms around his neck and drew him close. ‘Why?' she whispered. ‘That message,' said Simon. ‘On that fucking website. They pulled in Jim and Tommy too. It was take redundancy or we'll sack you. And it's a shitty deal. It's not even what they gave Brian Grant.' Andrew stood perfectly still, calcifying slowly into a monument of guilt. ‘Fuck,' said Simon, into Ruth's shoulder. ‘You'll get something else,' she whispered. ‘Not round here,' said Simon. He sat down on a kitchen chair, still in his coat, and stared across the room, apparently too stunned to speak. Ruth hovered around him, dismayed, affectionate and tearful. Andrew was glad to detect in Simon's catatonic gaze a whiff of his usual ham theatrics. It made him feel slightly less guilty. He continued to lay the table without saying a word. Dinner was a subdued affair. Paul, apprised of the family news, looked terrified, as though his father might accuse him of causing it all. Simon acted like a Christian martyr through the first course, wounded but dignified in the face of unwarranted persecution, but then – ‘I'll pay someone to punch the fucker's fat face through the back of his neck,' he burst out as he spooned apple crumble into himself; and the family knew that he meant Howard Mollison. ‘You know, there's been another message on that council website,' said Ruth breathlessly. ‘It's not only you who's had it, Si. Shir – somebody told me at work. The same person – The Ghost of Barry Fairbrother – has put up something horrible about Dr Jawanda. So Howard and Shirley got someone in to look at the site, and he realized that whoever's doing these messages has been using Barry Fairbrother's log-in details, so to be safe, they've taken them off the – the database or something – ‘ ‘And will any of this get me my fucking job back?' Ruth did not speak again for several minutes. Andrew was unnerved by what his mother had said. It was worrying that The_Ghost_of_Barry_Fairbrother was being investigated, and unnerving that somebody else had followed his lead. Who else would have thought of using Barry Fairbrother's log-in details but Fats? Yet why would Fats go for Dr Jawanda? Or was it just another way of getting at Sukhvinder? Andrew did not like it at all †¦ ‘What's the matter with you?' Simon barked across the table. ‘Nothing,' Andrew muttered, and then, backtracking, ‘it's a shock, isn't it †¦ your job †¦' ‘Oh, you're shocked, are you?' shouted Simon, and Paul dropped his spoon and dribbled ice cream down himself. ‘(Clean it up, Pauline, you little pansy!) Well, this is the real world, Pizza Face!' he shouted at Andrew. ‘Fuckers everywhere trying to do you down! So you,' he pointed across the table at his eldest son, ‘you get some dirt on Mollison, or don't bother coming home tomorrow!' ‘Si – ‘ Simon pushed his chair away from the table, threw down his own spoon, which bounced onto the floor with a clatter, and stalked from the room, slamming the door behind him. Andrew waited for the inevitable, and was not disappointed. ‘It's a terrible shock for him,' a shaken Ruth whispered at her sons. ‘After all the years he's given that company †¦ he's worried how he's going to look after us all †¦' When the alarm rang at six thirty the next morning, Andrew slammed it off within seconds and virtually leapt out of bed. Feeling as though it was Christmas Day, he washed and dressed at speed, then spent forty minutes on his hair and face, dabbing minuscule amounts of foundation onto the most obvious of his spots. He half expected Simon to waylay him as he crept past his parents' room, but he met nobody, and after a hasty breakfast he wheeled Simon's racing bicycle out of the garage and sped off down the hill towards Pagford. It was a misty morning that promised sunshine later. The blinds were still down in the delicatessen, but the door tinkled and gave when he pushed it. ‘Not this way!' shouted Howard, waddling towards him. ‘You come in round the back! You can leave the bike by the bins, get it away from the front!' The rear of the delicatessen, reached by a narrow passageway, comprised a tiny dank patch of stone-paved yard, bordered by high walls, sheds with industrial-sized metal bins and a trapdoor that led down vertiginous steps to a cellar. ‘You can chain it up somewhere there, out of the way,' said Howard, who had appeared at the back door, wheezing and sweaty-faced. While Andrew fumbled with the padlock on the chain, Howard dabbed at his forehead with his apron. ‘Right, we'll start with the cellar,' he said, when Andrew had secured the bicycle. He pointed at the trapdoor. ‘Get down there and see the layout.' He bent over the hatch as Andrew climbed down the steps. Howard had not been able to climb down into his own cellar for years. Maureen usually tottered up and down the steps a couple of times a week; but now that it was fully stocked with goods for the cafe, younger legs were indispensible. ‘Have a good look around,' he shouted at the out-of-sight Andrew. ‘See where we've got the gateaux and all the baked goods? See the big bags of coffee beans and the boxes of teabags? And in the corner – the toilet rolls and the bin bags?' ‘Yeah,' Andrew's voice echoed up from the depths. ‘You can call me Mr Mollison,' said Howard, with a slightly tart edge to his wheezy voice. Down in the cellar, Andrew wondered whether he ought to start straight away. ‘OK †¦ Mr Mollison.' It sounded sarcastic. He hastened to make amends with a polite question. ‘What's in these big cupboards?' ‘Have a look,' said Howard impatiently. ‘That's what you're down there for. To know where you put everything and where you get it from.' Howard listened to the muffled sounds of Andrew opening the heavy doors, and hoped that the boy would not prove gormless or need a lot of direction. Howard's asthma was particularly bad today; the pollen count was unseasonably high, on top of all the extra work, and the excitement and petty frustrations of the opening. The way he was sweating, he might need to ring Shirley to bring him a new shirt before they unlocked the doors. ‘Here's the van!' Howard shouted, hearing a rumble at the other end of the passageway. ‘Get up here! You're to carry the stuff down to the cellar and put it away, all right? And bring a couple of gallons of milk through to me in the cafe. You got that?' ‘Yeah †¦ Mr Mollison,' said Andrew's voice from below. Howard walked slowly back inside to fetch the inhaler that he kept in his jacket, which was hanging up in the staff room behind the delicatessen counter. Several deep breaths later, he felt much better. Wiping his face on his apron again, he sat down on one of the creaking chairs to rest. Several times since he had been to see her about his skin rash, Howard had thought about what Dr Jawanda had said about his weight: that it was the source of all his health problems. Nonsense, obviously. Look at the Hubbards' boy: built like a beanpole, and shocking asthma. Howard had always been big, as far back as he could remember. In the very few photographs taken of him with his father, who had left the family when Howard was four or five, he was merely chubby. After his father had left, his mother had sat him at the head of the table, between herself and his grandmother, and been hurt if he did not take seconds. Steadily he had grown to fill the space between the two women, as heavy at twelve as the father who had left them. Howard had come to associate a hearty appetite with manliness. His bulk was one of his defining characteristics. It had been built with pleasure, by the women who loved him, and he thought it was absolutely characteristic of Bends-Your-Ear, that emasculating killjoy, that she wanted to strip him of it. But sometimes, in moments of weakness, when it became difficult to breathe or to move, Howard knew fear. It was all very well for Shirley to act as though he had never been in danger, but he remembered long nights in the hospital after his bypass, when he had not been able to sleep for worry that his heart might falter and stop. Whenever he caught sight of Vikram Jawanda, he remembered that those long dark fingers had actually touched his naked, beating heart; the bonhomie with which he brimmed at each encounter was a way of driving out that primitive, instinctive terror. They had told him at the hospital afterwards that he needed to lose some weight, but he had dropped two stone naturally while he was forced to live off their dreadful food, and Shirley had been intent on fattening him up again once he was out †¦ Howard sat for a moment more, enjoying the ease with which he breathed after using his inhaler. Today meant a great deal to him. Thirty-five years previously, he had introduced fine dining to Pagford with the elan of a sixteenth-century adventurer returning with delicacies from the other side of the world, and Pagford, after initial wariness, had soon begun to nose curiously and timidly into his polystyrene pots. He thought wistfully of his late mother, who had been so proud of him and his thriving business. He wished that she could have seen the cafe. Howard heaved himself back to his feet, took his deerstalker from its hook and placed it carefully on his head in an act of self-coronation. His new waitresses arrived together at half-past eight. He had a surprise for them. ‘Here you are,' he said, holding out the uniforms: black dresses with frilly white aprons, exactly as he had imagined. ‘Ought to fit. Maureen reckoned she knew your sizes. She's wearing one herself.' Gaia forced back a laugh as Maureen stalked into the delicatessen from the cafe, smiling at them. She was wearing Dr Scholl's sandals over her black stockings. Her dress finished two inches above her wrinkled knees. ‘You can change in the staff room, girls,' she said, indicating the place from which Howard had just emerged. Gaia was already pulling off her jeans beside the staff toilet when she saw Sukhvinder's expression. ‘Whassamatter, Sooks?' she asked. The new nickname gave Sukhvinder the courage to say what she might otherwise have been unable to voice. ‘I can't wear this,' she whispered. ‘Why?' asked Gaia. ‘You'll look OK.' But the black dress had short sleeves. ‘I can't.' ‘But wh – Jesus,' said Gaia. Sukhvinder had pulled back the sleeves of her sweatshirt. Her inner arms were covered in ugly criss-cross scars, and angry fresh-clotted cuts travelled up from her wrist to her inner arm. ‘Sooks,' said Gaia quietly. ‘What are you playing at, mate?' Sukhvinder shook her head, with her eyes full of tears. Gaia thought for a moment, then said, ‘I know – come here.' She was stripping off her long-sleeved T-shirt. The door suffered a big blow and the imperfectly closed bolt shot open: a sweating Andrew was halfway inside, carrying two weighty packs of toilet rolls, when Gaia's angry shout stopped him in his tracks. He tripped out backwards, into Maureen. ‘They're changing in there,' she said, in sour disapproval. ‘Mr Mollison told me to put these in the staff bathroom.' Holy shit, holy shit. She had been stripped to her bra and pants. He had seen nearly everything. ‘Sorry,' Andrew yelled at the closed door. His whole face was throbbing with the force of his blush. ‘Wanker,' muttered Gaia, on the other side. She was holding out her T-shirt to Sukhvinder. ‘Put it on underneath the dress.' ‘That'll look weird.' ‘Never mind. You can get a black one for next week, it'll look like you're wearing long sleeves. We'll tell him some story †¦' ‘She's got eczema,' Gaia announced, when she and Sukhvinder emerged from the staff room, fully dressed and aproned. ‘All up her arms. It's a bit scabby.' ‘Ah,' said Howard, glancing at Sukhvinder's white T-shirted arms and then back at Gaia, who looked every bit as gorgeous as he had hoped. ‘I'll get a black one for next week,' said Sukhvinder, unable to look Howard in the eye. ‘Fine,' he said, patting Gaia in the small of her back as he sent the pair of them through to the cafe. ‘Brace yourselves,' he called to his staff at large. ‘We're nearly there †¦ doors open, please, Maureen!' There was already a little knot of customers waiting on the pavement. A sign outside read: The Copper Kettle, Opening Today – First Coffee Free! Andrew did not see Gaia again for hours. Howard kept him busy heaving milk and fruit juices up and down the steep cellar steps, and swabbing the floor of the small kitchen area at the back. He was given a lunch break earlier than either of the waitresses. The next glimpse he got of her was when Howard summoned him to the counter of the cafe, and they passed within inches of each other as she walked in the other direction, towards the back room. ‘We're swamped, Mr Price!' said Howard, in high good humour. ‘Get yourself a clean apron and mop down some of these tables for me while Gaia has her lunch!' Miles and Samantha Mollison had sat down with their two daughters and Shirley at a table in the window. ‘It seems to be going awfully well, doesn't it?' Shirley said, looking around. ‘But what on earth is that Jawanda girl wearing under her dress?' ‘Bandages?' suggested Miles, squinting across the room. ‘Hi, Sukhvinder!' called Lexie, who knew her from primary school. ‘Don't shout, darling,' Shirley reproved her granddaughter, and Samantha bristled. Maureen emerged from behind the counter in her short black dress and frilly apron, and Shirley corpsed into her coffee. ‘Oh dear,' she said quietly, as Maureen walked towards them, beaming. It was true, Samantha thought, Maureen looked ridiculous, especially next to a pair of sixteen-year-olds in identical dresses, but she was not going to give Shirley the satisfaction of agreeing with her. She turned ostentatiously away, watching the boy mopping tables nearby. He was spare but reasonably broad-shouldered. She could see his muscles working under the loose T-shirt. Incredible to think that Miles' big fat backside could ever have been that small and tight – then the boy turned into the light and she saw his acne. ‘Not half bad, is it?' Maureen was croaking to Miles. ‘We've been full all day.' ‘All right, girls,' Miles addressed his family, ‘what'll we have to keep up Grandpa's profits?' Samantha listlessly ordered a bowl of soup, as Howard waddled through from the delicatessen; he had been striding in and out of the cafe every ten minutes all day, greeting customers and checking the flow of cash into the till. ‘Roaring success,' he told Miles, squeezing in at their table. ‘What d'you think of the place, Sammy? You haven't seen it before, have you? Like the mural? Like the china?' ‘Mm,' said Samantha. ‘Lovely.' ‘I was thinking about having my sixty-fifth here,' said Howard, absent-mindedly scratching at the itch Parminder's creams had not yet cured, ‘but it's not big enough. I think we'll stick with the church hall.' ‘When's that, Grandpa?' piped up Lexie. ‘Am I coming?' ‘Twenty-ninth, and what are you now – sixteen? Course you can come,' said Howard happily. ‘The twenty-ninth?' said Samantha. ‘Oh, but †¦' Shirley looked at her sharply. ‘Howard's been planning this for months. We've all been talking about it for ages.' ‘†¦ that's the night of Libby's concert,' said Samantha. ‘A school thing, is it?' asked Howard. ‘No,' said Libby, ‘Mum's got me tickets for my favourite group. It's in London.' ‘And I'm going with her,' said Samantha. ‘She can't go alone.' ‘Harriet's mum says she could – ‘ ‘I'm taking you, Libby, if you're going to London.' ‘The twenty-ninth?' said Miles, looking hard at Samantha. ‘The day after the election?' Samantha let loose the derisive laugh that she had spared Maureen. ‘It's the Parish Council, Miles. It's not as though you'll be giving press conferences.' ‘Well, we'll miss you, Sammy,' said Howard, as he hauled himself up with the aid of the back of her chair. ‘Best get on †¦ all right, Andrew, you're done here †¦ go and see if we need anything up from the cellar.' Andrew was forced to wait beside the counter while people passed to and from the bathroom. Maureen was loading up Sukhvinder with plates of sandwiches. ‘How's your mother?' she asked the girl abruptly, as though the thought had just occurred to her. ‘Fine,' said Sukhvinder, her colour rising. ‘Not too upset by that nasty business on the council website?' ‘No,' said Sukhvinder, her eyes watering. Andrew proceeded out into the dank yard, which, in the early afternoon, had become warm and sunny. He had hoped that Gaia might be there, taking a breath of fresh air, but she must have gone into the staff room in the deli. Disappointed, he lit up a cigarette. He had barely inhaled when Gaia emerged from the cafe, finishing her lunch with a can of fizzy drink. ‘Hi,' said Andrew, his mouth dry. ‘Hi,' she said. Then, after a moment or two: ‘Hey, why's that friend of yours such a shit to Sukhvinder? Is it personal or is he racist?' ‘He isn't racist,' said Andrew. He removed the cigarette from his mouth, trying to keep his hands from trembling, but could not think of anything else to say. The sunshine reflected off the bins warmed his sweaty back; close proximity to her in the tight black dress was almost overwhelming, especially now that he had glimpsed what lay beneath. He took another drag of the cigarette, not knowing when he had felt so bedazzled or so alive. ‘What's she ever done to him, though?' The curve of her hips to her tiny waist; the perfection of her wide, flecked eyes over the can of Sprite. Andrew felt like saying, Nothing, he's a bastard, I'll hit him if you let me touch you †¦ Sukhvinder emerged into the yard, blinking in the sunlight; she looked uncomfortable and hot in Gaia's top. ‘He wants you back in,' she said to Gaia. ‘He can wait,' said Gaia coolly. ‘I'm finishing this. I've only had forty minutes.' Andrew and Sukhvinder contemplated her as she sipped her drink, awed by her arrogance and her beauty. ‘Was that old bitch saying something to you just then, about your mum?' Gaia asked Sukhvinder. Sukhvinder nodded. ‘I think it might've been his mate,' she said, staring at Andrew again, and he found her emphasis on his positively erotic, even if she meant it to be derogatory, ‘who put that message about your mum on that website.' ‘Can't've been,' said Andrew, and his voice wobbled slightly. ‘Whoever did it went after my old man, too. Couple of weeks ago.' ‘What?' asked Gaia. ‘The same person posted something about your dad?' He nodded, relishing her interest. ‘Something about stealing, wasn't it?' asked Sukhvinder, with considerable daring. ‘Yeah,' said Andrew. ‘And he got the sack for it yesterday. So her mum,' he met Gaia's blinding gaze almost steadily, ‘isn't the only one who's suffered.' ‘Bloody hell,' said Gaia, upending the can and throwing it into a bin. ‘People round here are effing mental.'

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Ultrasound Technology Essay - 1526 Words

What is Ultrasound? Ultrasound or ultrasonography is a medical imaging technique that uses high frequency sound waves. It is a high pitch frequency that cannot be heard by the human ear. In ultra sound the following happens: High frequency sound pulses (1-5megahertz) are transmitted from the ultrasound machine into your body using a probe. The sound wave will travel into your body until it hits an object such as soft tissue and bone. When the sound wave hits these objects some of the wave will be reflected back to the probe. While some waves may carry on further till they hit another object and then reflected back. The probe picks up these reflected sound waves and relays them to the machine. The distance and time from the probe,†¦show more content†¦The probe also has an acoustic lens this helps to focus the emitted sound waves. The transducer probe can come in many different shapes and sizes. The field of view depends on the shape of the probe. Also the frequency of the waves emit ted determines how deep the sound waves will penetrate and also the resolution of the image that will be produced. Probes can be used to move across the body but they can also be inserted through various openings. E.g. orally, this enables the probe to get closer to object that is being examined. Being closer to the object may allow for more detailed views. The central processing unit is basically the brains behind the ultrasound machine. It is a computer that sends the electric current to the probe to tell it to emit the sound waves. It also receives the electrical pulses from the probe which received the sound waves that were reflected back. The CPU processes all the calculations and all the data the probe receives. Once this information has been processed, the CPU forms an image on the monitor. It can also store the data into its memory. Transducer pulse controls allows the operator of the machine to set and change the frequency and duration of the ultrasound pulses. The display or the monitor allows for the data that has been processed by the CPU to be displayed as an image. Images can be displayed in black and white or in color depending on the make and model of theShow MoreRelatedThe Application Of Ultrasound Technology1188 Words   |  5 Pagesof ultrasonic equipment 5 Future development of ultrasound technology 5 Conclusion 6 References 6 â€Æ' Introduction Ultrasound is a sound wave that has a frequency greater than the highest frequency humans can hear, therefore it occupies frequency ranges from 20 kHz up to several GHz. Ultrasound is bound by the exactly same wave properties as all other sorts of waves, those being: reflection, refraction, diffraction and mode conversion. Ultrasound is widely used in current days, across a vast numberRead More2D and 3/4D Ultrasound Technology Essay2130 Words   |  9 Pages1.5.3 2D and 3/4D ultrasound technology Since 2003, there have been advances in ultrasound imaging technology with applications such as two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound scanning, which provides a greyscale image of the detailed internal structures of the foetus. With additional software, the same ultrasound machine can also produce enhanced images using 3/4D scans. Currently, sonographers are involved in utilising scan technologies in hospital and private-clinic environments at various stages duringRead MoreBenefits And Benefits Of Ultrasound Technology Essay1494 Words   |  6 Pages Introduction: The Advantages and Inconveniencies of Ultrasound Technology The delivery of the portable compact ultrasound technology in India proposes a significant potential health benefit to millions suffering from painful or potentially life-threatening diseases, such as breast cancer, gallbladder, and pancreas illnesses. Ultrasound is nontoxic, noninvasive and does not use ionizing radiation. The ultrasound equipment has the potential to increase efficacy and early detection inRead Moretechnology has advanced ultrasound1186 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿ Austin Smith Technology has advanced Ultrasound Waukesha County Technical College 12/3/13 Table of Contents Abstract†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..page 3 Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦page 4 3d/4D imaging†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦page 4 Pure Wave Transducer†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦page 5 Color Doppler†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.page 6 Point-of-Care†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..page 6 Conclusion†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..page 7 Reference page†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦page 8 Abstract Read MoreEssay The Ethics of Sonography and Gendercide1530 Words   |  7 PagesThe constantly growing field of medical technology has raised many questions especially pertaining to ethics. The mapping of the human genome, cloning technologies, stem cell research, and of course reproductive technology has caused some very real dilemmas over the role of the human decision in the creation and orientation of new life. Humans are able to accomplish amazing things in science, but at what cost? The ubiquitous nature of reproductive technology has caused a new discipline of reproductiveRead MoreMulti Point Haptic Feedback Above Interactive Surfaces1049 Words   |  5 PagesScience Nile University Giza/ Egypt m.abdelwahab@nu.edu.eg Abstract This paper introduces UltraHaptics, a new technology designed to provide multi-point mid-air haptic feedback above an interactive surface. The technology depends on focusing ultrasound to project separated points of haptic feedback through the display and then directly to the user’s bare hands. This new technology is simple and accessible, which make it easy to enter different fields of industry and have wide applications. IndexRead MorePercutaneous Medical Image And Ultrasound Image1043 Words   |  5 PagesObjectives It has been proved that ultrasound imaging is the main and primary device that is used as guidance for percutaneous medical procedures (Gray 2006). However, poor needle tip localization needs to be solved. Also, localize the needle tip in deep locations (`Cheung Rohling 2004) and slope insertion angles (Edgombe Hocking 2010). Enhancing the needle visibility will lead to decrease procedures’ failure. Mohammad mentioned that in his studies in 2013, an ultrasound actuated needle with a transducerRead MoreThe Medical Ultra Sound Field1155 Words   |  5 Pagesexpanding and making medical progress, and new findings. Ultrasounds are becoming more and more popular everyday. People are coming up with many new ways to help treat patients, and also new procedures to get better, and more defined images of the body. Also, people are making it possible to find some problems quicker than they ever could have before. A diagnostic medical sonographer is a professional, which has had the proper schooling to use technology to help diagnose patients. Sonographers use a specialRead MoreThe First Invention Of Radiology1507 Words   |  7 PagesRoentgen’s discovery would help detect tumors, broken bones and bullets buried within bodies, never before seen with the naked eye. Since the invention of X-rays, there had been numerous discoveries of similar inventions, from image intensifier to ult rasound to magnetic resonance imaging. Without these inventions, humans would not have been able to see the inner workings of the body or detect key information in modern times that allow us to prevent serious illnesses where other inventions proved uselessRead MoreDetection Of A Sublingual Lymphatic Malformation1325 Words   |  6 Pagesfetus: a rare case Sarah McCuaig, Diana Ghaeni, Linnell Weatherhead British Columbia Institute of Technology DSON 4007 Sonography Project Word Count: 1543 Abstract Lymphatic malformations (LMs) are benign cystic lesions which, while rare, often affect the pediatric age group. LMs can be macrocystic, microcystic or a combination of the two, and frequently involve the head and neck regions. Ultrasound is useful in the prenatal detection of LMs; however, these lesions can be missed. This case study

Saturday, December 28, 2019

Sex Education Is Important For A Student s Comprehensive...

+ Sex is important. Every human life is the result of someone having sex. So why has sex education become such a controversy? The entirety of the issue seems to fit under a cloud of scandal, because almost every topic is slightly taboo. Sex education however, is vital and absolutely necessary for a student’s comprehensive education. Students, parents, and teachers begin to hit roadblocks when human dignity and social inequalities begin to cause issues and misconceptions about sex education. When one is informed about what sex education really is, the issues within sex education that need to be faced, and how communication can create more solutions, the understanding of how sex education should be handled will naturally increase. The difficult and controversial topic of sex education is inundated with complicated issues, however with the help of increased education and communication, more solutions can be found for our most challenging problems. Sex education is a program that can teach students about multiple facets of sex, the anatomy of male and female bodies, and relationships leading up to sex. Unfortunately, more often than not, sex education does not cover over all of these topics. Depending on the school or program certain elements of the education process may be withheld from students. In her 2008 book, Risky Lessons: Sex Education and Social Inequality, Jessica Fields discusses how the North Carolina school board chose to omit three chapters from their sexShow MoreRelatedShould Sex Education Be Taught? Abstinence Only Education?1397 Words   |  6 PagesSexual education in schools has become a highly controversial topic over the past few years. Some people believe students should be taught abstinence-only education, while others believe students need the full on â€Å"sex talk†. While the sex education controversy may seem silly, it is very important that students receive the most efficient education possib le. When it comes to education parents want their children to receive the most effective kind. This is also very true in terms of sex education. SexRead MoreSex Education For Public Schools1426 Words   |  6 PagesSex Education Research Paper Sex education being taught in public schools is a reoccurring topic in many schools. More recently, it has also caught the attention of the public again due to rising unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted disease among young teenagers in the US over the last decade or so. â€Å"Each year, U.S. teens experience as many as 850,000 pregnancies, and youth under age 25 experience about 9.1 million sexually transmitted infections† (McKeon). Sex Education is attempting toRead MoreSex Education Is An Important, Emotional And Controversial1645 Words   |  7 PagesSex education is an important, emotional and controversial topic to teach youth in today’s world. The question is, what is the best information, and the best way to teach them? Comprehensive sex education is teaching teens how to practice safe sex, providing teens with types of protection, and how to use it, as well as services and resources available to help them in making decisions to practice safe sex. Abst inence-only programs teach teens to not have sex, or anything â€Å"arousing† until marriageRead MoreThe, Birds And The Bees Analogy1575 Words   |  7 PagesSex is a very awkward subject to talk about especially for parents to their children, as it brings up thoughts and topics over raging hormones and actions. Ever since humans have evolved through time, sex has been imperative to survival by sharing various genetics, skills, and traits from both parties. Seems easy enough? Not necessarily. Even if parents do use the classic ‘birds and the bees’ analogy for discuss this scandalous subject, children are still curious about how it works and wish to exploreRead MoreSex Education And Sexual Education948 Words   |  4 Pagesdecline is comprehensive sex education taught in schools. One the other hand, the opponents believe that the reason for this decline is the sex education classes that teach about not having sex. Even when most schools are teaching abstinences only sex education about sixty-six percent of high school students says they are sexually active. Which concludes that the abstinences only sex education is not working and is not the proper way of teaching sex education in schools. Not teaching proper sex educationRead MoreSex Education in the U.S. and Japan Essay1202 Words   |  5 Pagesbeen discussed for decades to decrease teenage pregnancy and sex related diseases. According to The National Campaign to prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy (2013), the U.S. has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy among developed countries, and about sixty eight girls per thousand became pregnant in 2008. To change this situation, the U.S. provides two kinds of sex education: abstinence-only sex education and comprehensive sex education. In contrast, Japan has one of the lowest rates among developedRead MoreShould Sex Education Be A Part Of The Necessary Curriculum?1321 Words   |  6 PagesThe debate over whether or not sex education sho uld be a part of the necessary curriculum has been a popular topic of controversy since the 1960s (Pardini). Sex education is defined as â€Å"[a] broad term used to describe education about human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse, and other aspects of human sexual behavior† (â€Å"Sex Education†, Science Daily). Today in the United States, many people no longer feel that sex is a topic to be ignored or not mentioned in â€Å"polite society,†Read MoreAbstinence-only vs. Abstinence-plus1607 Words   |  7 Pagesare bigger than the issue of underage sex, and all the issues stemming from it. The number of teenagers becoming sexually active, pregnant, and contracting sexually transmitted diseases are rapidly on the rise. There is no simple fix, or easy solution to this problem. Sex education should begin at home, and extend to include an effective program in schools that reinforce a clear message of abstaining from sexual activity in additi on to informing students of the risks posed by engaging in sexualRead MoreSample Resume : Comprehensive Sex Education887 Words   |  4 PagesMentor: Cruickshank BACKGROUND EQ: SHOULD COMPREHENSIVE SEX EDUCATION BE TAUGHT IN US PUBLIC SCHOOLS? While abstinence-only sex education discusses solely abstinence, comprehensive sex education provides information about various areas of human sexuality and methods to practice safe and healthy sexual behaviors. To fully understand the controversy surrounding comprehensive sexual education, one need to obtain knowledge about the history of sex education in the United States, legislation, classRead MoreThe Significance Of Sex Education982 Words   |  4 PagesOctober 2017 The Significance of Sex Education As teenagers start to grow up, they face with many difficult decisions about relationship and sexual behavior in their lives. It can impact their lives, health and behavior. To make sure that your children follow the right path to live a healthy life, sex education can prepare them to make good decisions. If you are not sexually active, that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t give up your chance to learn about it. Sex education shouldn’t be limited to teenagers

Thursday, December 19, 2019

The Killer Angels By John M. Skipper Essay - 781 Words

History 1301 John M. Skipper The Killer Angels is a historic backstory of the days leading up to the Civil War. The story is told from multiple viewpoints including Robert E. Lee, James Longstreet, George Meade, and Winfield Scott Hancock. It is mentioned the Army of Northern Virginia is moving behind the Blue Ridge Mountains, and that the Army of Potomac is also moving, but is traveling very slow. This is one of the characteristics which plagued them throughout the war. Shaara gives insight to the background of both Armies. He described the Confederates as a unified group with soldiers of the same background, while the Union is the exact opposite. Its men are very divided soldiers fighting for unification. There is one similarity between the two sides which stands out more than all the others; both sides are ready for the final showdown. Shaara gives insight into this by hinting towards the conflict, yet never telling the reader directly. This causes the reader to be drawn deeper into the story anticipating wha t will happen next. There are illustrations showing movement of the Confederate and the Union armies, an epilogue, and an afterword stating the events after the Battle of Gettysburg. In the foreword, Sharra tells the reader the purpose of the book is to educate the reader on the history of the battle, but also give insight into the soldier’s thoughts. Sharra also writes that out of all the historic writings about the battle, he chose to use letters,

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Post 1914 Drama Essay Example For Students

Post 1914 Drama Essay Written in 1947, J.B. Priestleys didactic murder-mystery, An Inspector Calls, accentuates the fraudulent Edwardian era in which the play was set. Britain in 1912 was inordinately different to Britain in 1947, where a country annihilated by war was determined to right the wrongs of a society before them. In 1912 Britain was at the height of Edwardian society, known as the Golden Age. A quarter of the globe was coloured red, denoting the vast and powerful Empire and all Britons, no matter what class they belonged to were proud to be British the best nation in the world. Theatres, musicals, proms concerts and films entertained the growing population. The upper classes led such a lavish life of luxury that the Edwardian era is now infamous for its elegance, ostentation, extravagance and sexual license. However despite the illusions of these secure times this epoch was full of hypocrisy, prejudice and exploitation. There was a huge divide between the upper and lower classes and the difference between the affluent lifestyle the wealthy lived compared to the downtrodden existence of the poor was remarkable.  In 1947 Britain had just come to the end of a devastating world war where families had suffered immense losses and society was desperate for a fairer, more equal lifestyle. Socialism and left-wing Labour views were becoming increasingly popular and Priestley, himself a Socialist, was anxious to point out the flaws of a society which rewarded rich men who openly exploited the poor for profit. He effectively uses hindsight in his play to ensure the corruption, hierarchy and discrimination of Edwardian Britain was not repeated. There is an irrefutable message in Priestleys thriller, a feeling felt by many Socialists at the time. Being responsible for oneself, it was thought, was not enough, if one wishes to obtain a fairer society then one must accept responsibility for others. Priestley believed that the upper classes have wealth and influence and therefore have responsibility for the way in which society is organised. He argues that the upper classes control what happens to the lower classes and that this power must be exercised with care. He is trying to convey to the audience the need for personal responsibility and also responsibility for the way in which our actions affect others. In the play Priestley explores the diverse aspects of responsibility. He relates these ideas to the Birling family although the family members are stereotypes representing people at the time. Mr. Birling is ascribed very Capitalist views and believes A man has to make his own way has to look after himself. These clearly contrast the views portrayed by the Inspector, Priestleys mouthpiece in the play, which are very socialist. We dont live alone. We are members of one body we are responsible for each other. The character Mrs. Birling automatically tries to pass the blame and responsibility of the suicide of Eva Smith onto someone else, willingly creating a scapegoat, Go and look for the father of the child, its his responsibility, she tells the Inspector. Although Sheila Birlings views are more socialist she represents the younger generation in society, she is more concerned with fashion, her appearance and family life, rather that the controversial political and social views of the time. The play as a whole is addressed to all of society and the characters are purposefully created for the audience to be able to relate to them. There are four main roles played by the clear-thinking Inspector. As well as representing Priestley and being his mouthpiece in the play he acts as a narrator, summarising key events for the audience and as a conscience for each individual family member. He also portrays a traditional policeman of the time with a disconcerting habit of looking hard at the person he addresses before actually speaking. This immediately unnerves and discomfits a person. .u906e6b583da9584e1962c52801ebf28e , .u906e6b583da9584e1962c52801ebf28e .postImageUrl , .u906e6b583da9584e1962c52801ebf28e .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u906e6b583da9584e1962c52801ebf28e , .u906e6b583da9584e1962c52801ebf28e:hover , .u906e6b583da9584e1962c52801ebf28e:visited , .u906e6b583da9584e1962c52801ebf28e:active { border:0!important; } .u906e6b583da9584e1962c52801ebf28e .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u906e6b583da9584e1962c52801ebf28e { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u906e6b583da9584e1962c52801ebf28e:active , .u906e6b583da9584e1962c52801ebf28e:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u906e6b583da9584e1962c52801ebf28e .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u906e6b583da9584e1962c52801ebf28e .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u906e6b583da9584e1962c52801ebf28e .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u906e6b583da9584e1962c52801ebf28e .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u906e6b583da9584e1962c52801ebf28e:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u906e6b583da9584e1962c52801ebf28e .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u906e6b583da9584e1962c52801ebf28e .u906e6b583da9584e1962c52801ebf28e-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u906e6b583da9584e1962c52801ebf28e:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Scene or section EssayHe has a very concise way of questioning and interrogating his suspects and as a policeman he is always in control, adapting the manner in which he addresses the family members to suit their personalities. He is firm and direct with Sheila, yet not too unkind. She has admitted to her involvement in the incident involving Eva Smith and has shown that she will learn from the experience. He also becomes much tougher when it is necessary. Mrs. Birling refuses to admit to her involvement in Smiths suicide and the Inspector becomes almost aggressive in his attempt to prise the truth from her. As a dramatic devise Priestley uses the Inspector as the role of narrator and unifies the structure of the play. There are many connotations within the name Inspector Goole. As an inspector he has come to investigate or inspect the family members and their actions. Goole is similarly sounding to the word ghoul, a ghost or phantom. It introduces a very eerie, morbid feel to the play as if the Inspector is not real, a ghost from the past and ever present in the lives of the Birling family.  The Inspector is a father-confessor, a moral force who has made the characters judge themselves. He claims to know a limited amount but expertly draws the confessions from each individual character. Throughout the play he has used relatively simplistic language, often minimal amounts, allowing the members of the family to relay their versions of events in their own time and manner. However when he states to the family, each of you helped to kill her, he links all of the events together, recalling each characters involvement. His final speech dramatically contrasts his use of language throughout the play. He uses ornate, oratorical, exaggerated and hyperbolic diction in an almost biblical tone, preaching to the family and the audience. He moves from commenting on one particular person to all of those people who are cruelly and unnecessarily exploited in society, millions of Eva Smiths and John Smiths. This is Priestleys main message, echoed in the characters actions and the Inspectors interrogation through the play; we are all responsible for each other.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Louis Farrakhan Essay Research Paper Dear fellow free essay sample

Louis Farrakhan Essay, Research Paper Dear fellow Jews, Louis Farrakhan is a powerful Muslim leader in America, celebrated for being the Messiah of hope and the curate of hatred. Bing the Messiah of hope, he emphasised the involvement to stop human agony. He addressed a powerful message of solidarity and ego aid that inspired one million African American throughout USA # 8211 ; a measure towards work outing offense, drug dependence, broken households and other upsets in the community. But as the curate of hatred, he shows another side of his face by declaring his involvement in hatred and human agony. He publically said, borrowing a spot of Hitler s aura that Jews are # 8220 ; blood chumps # 8221 ; , Judaism is a # 8220 ; trough faith # 8221 ; and Hitler was a # 8220 ; evilly great adult male # 8221 ; . In his run non merely is Judaism bigoted but about every human being in the universe regardless of race or national beginning, hapless Whites, rich Whites, even African Americans who are non of the Nation of Islam. We will write a custom essay sample on Louis Farrakhan Essay Research Paper Dear fellow or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This unqualified behavior, as you know, indicates that his self-importance, haughtiness and tunnel vision has blinded his perceptual experience of world. We are hurt and merely can non bury his unpleasant comments about Judaic people with his long and destructive history of dogmatism and antisemitism. # 8220 ; Not another Hitler! # 8221 ; A fellow Jewish said. Of class, people are still thinking at what went on in the head of great slayers and liquidators of this century like Hitler, non like Farrakhan who merely extent himself to words. But I personally think that The Federal Government was right to let his visit. Why so did the Federal Government give credibleness and weight to a purveyor of hatred? Banning Farrakhan is non the appropriate manner to cover with this racialist speechmaker because this means that we would give up freedom of address which is a important component of Australia s democratic tradition. When your ears are ruddy hot with Farrakhan s words at least maintain your head cool! Peoples put labels on Farrakhan and neer say they have studied the adult male. They have been privy to studies and now have become â€Å"Farrakhan Experts† . That s what made some of us blind, deaf and dumb. Farrakhan is an illustration of class! Our experience with the honorable Louis Farrakhan gives us a alone advantage when it comes to trusting upon information about him. If person met the adult male and came off with a positive experience, so related that experience to us, so wear T you owe yourself at least to analyze what he s stating! Hitler was an enemy to Jews, but Jews study him. Since infinite people in the universe have a alone position of this adult male, why non endeavor for the same position? We know it s something you and many others refuse to admit. Then certainly in the spirit of duologue, that Jews can sit an talk with Farrakhan! There s no suggestion that the Farrakhan administration is involved with terrorist act or condemnable activity. Australia s Torahs about offense and libel, are adequate protection to forestall the voicing of racism and dogmatism in the multicultural society. If Farrakhan does tour to Australia, he will be capable to our Torahs of calumny and libel. Should he interrupt them he may be charged and if convicted he could be refused entry in the future.As the Federal Government allows his visit, we will hold the opportunity to hush him, by manner of ridicule, argument, and ground. Valuess of tolerance, common regard and freedom of faith are excessively cherished to support. In Australia so many people are working so difficult to contend racism and we are seeking to construct integrity with the assorted multicultural groups in this state, whereas Farrakhan is a dissentious component. Racism and blood feud haven t got a topographic point in people s Black Marias. God merely knows, the wages such destructive people deserve in the hereafter.